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面向无线通信的轨道角动量关键技术研究进展

廖希 周晨虹 王洋 廖莎莎 周继华 张杰

廖希, 周晨虹, 王洋, 廖莎莎, 周继华, 张杰. 面向无线通信的轨道角动量关键技术研究进展[J]. 电子与信息学报, 2020, 42(7): 1666-1677. doi: 10.11999/JEIT190372
引用本文: 廖希, 周晨虹, 王洋, 廖莎莎, 周继华, 张杰. 面向无线通信的轨道角动量关键技术研究进展[J]. 电子与信息学报, 2020, 42(7): 1666-1677. doi: 10.11999/JEIT190372
Xi LIAO, Chenhong ZHOU, Yang WANG, Shasha LIAO, Jihua ZHOU, Jie ZHANG. A Survey of Orbital Angular Momentum in Wireless Communication[J]. Journal of Electronics and Information Technology, 2020, 42(7): 1666-1677. doi: 10.11999/JEIT190372
Citation: Xi LIAO, Chenhong ZHOU, Yang WANG, Shasha LIAO, Jihua ZHOU, Jie ZHANG. A Survey of Orbital Angular Momentum in Wireless Communication[J]. Journal of Electronics and Information Technology, 2020, 42(7): 1666-1677. doi: 10.11999/JEIT190372

面向无线通信的轨道角动量关键技术研究进展

doi: 10.11999/JEIT190372
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(61801062, 61601073, 61801063),重庆市基础科学与前沿技术研究项目(CSTC2017JCYJA0817),重庆邮电大学博士启动基金(A2016-110)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    廖希:女,1988年生,讲师,博士,研究方向为涡旋电磁波、电波传播、射频与微波电子学、信道建模等

    周晨虹:女,1996年生,硕士生,研究方向为轨道角动量产生与传播

    王洋:男,1986年生,副教授,博士,研究方向为天线与传播、雷达信号处理、无线通信等

    廖莎莎:女,1990年生,讲师,博士,研究方向为微波光子学、硅光子学、射频信号处理等

    周继华:男,1979年生,研究员,博士,博士生导师,研究方向为移动网络、无线通信、5G等

    张杰:男,1967年生,教授,博士,研究方向为涡旋电磁波、毫米波通信、智能环境建模与设计等

    通讯作者:

    廖希 liaoxi@cqupt.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TN921

A Survey of Orbital Angular Momentum in Wireless Communication

Funds: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (61801062, 61601073, 61801063), The Chongqing Research Program of Basic Research and Frontier Technology (CSTC2017JCYJA0817), The Dr. Start-up Funding of Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications (A2016-110)
  • 摘要: 电磁涡旋因携带轨道角动量而具有高维可调制自由度,被引入无线通信中以提升频谱效率和抗干扰能力。该文首先介绍了轨道角动量和电磁涡旋的基本原理与特性;然后比较了电磁涡旋的产生方法,给出了超表面产生轨道角动量的工作原理,综述了基于超表面的轨道角动量产生方法和研究现状;总结了轨道角动量的传输性能、接收与检测方法、复用与解复用性能;最后讨论了未来在应用无线通信轨道角动量时需要解决的关键问题。
  • 图  1  PEC-PMC超表面示意图

    图  2  实验测量装置图

    图  3  环形孔超表面示意图

    图  4  超表面的几何结构俯视图

    图  5  多径信道系统模型示意图

    图  6  OAM多径效应镜面反射模型示意图[47]

    图  7  OAM-MDM系统示意图

    图  8  复用与解复用示意图

    图  9  天线UCA示意图

    表  1  电磁涡旋特性

    特性基本原理潜在应用
    正交性任意两个整数阶模态的OAM波束互相正交,构成无穷维希尔伯特空间提升系统频谱效率
    发散性随着距离和OAM阶数的增加,OAM波束发散程度加剧
    稳定性OAM的相位结构与传输距离无关[26];当拓扑电荷为整数时相位奇点处场强为零,并且随着传播距离增加,中心对称的场强分布保持稳定。实现长距离传输
    反射性OAM涡旋波束经过镜面反射只改变旋转方向不影响波前相位结构有利于分析多径效应
    对传输系统的影响
    安全性受到角度限制和横向偏移的影响,在传输过程中对信号的抽样检测存在不确定性[9],可有效防止信息被窃取。更高编码强度,实现高容量高保密性通信[27]
    多维量子纠缠单光子或纠缠光子可用于量子信息处理,非整数模态OAM模态可以分解为整数OAM模态的线性叠加;纠缠的量子态不可分离[28]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  典型OAM产生方法与分类

    产生方式生成原理典型代表优缺点应用
    透射光栅结构利用干涉条纹产生的交叉错位结果得到的叉形光栅生成相位全息图,结合计算机仿真数据制作相位全息面。空间光调制器成本低、转换速度快、可工作在任意频率、系统复杂度较低;但是仅能实现单模态和非纯模态的生成、器件实现较复杂。可用于毫米波频段产生OAM波束,通过空间复用提高频谱效率。
    透射螺旋结构波束透过厚度$h$随中心旋转方位角$\phi $比例变化的相位板,产生相位差随厚度变化的透射电磁波。单阶梯型螺旋相位板多阶梯型螺旋相位板多孔型螺旋相位板成本低、转换效率高、系统复杂度较低;但是仅能在单点频率上实现单模态转换,并且器件转换过程较复杂。可用于实现高容量、高频谱效率的毫米波和太赫兹通信。
    透射反射面波束入射到非平面螺旋结构的不同区域,导致波束相邻部分存在相对延迟。阶梯型反射面
    螺旋抛物面天线
    成本低、系统复杂度较低、转换效率和转换速度正常;但是仅能在单点频率上生成单模态和非纯模态,并且实现过程较复杂。通过OAM编码技术实现同频宽带干扰和地面反射干扰的鲁棒性传输。
    天线阵列为各阵列单元馈送相同信号,通过改变阵元间馈电相位差产生不同的模态。圆形相控阵列时间开关阵列巴特勒矩阵馈电阵列光实时延时天线阵列可在所有频率范围内生成多个模态和相反模态,器件制作较容易,转换速度和效率一般;但是成本高、系统复杂度较高。可对携带OAM的射频信号进行多路复用和解复用,增加系统容量和效率。
    q-板在普通介质材料上加工特定几何形状的凹槽形成一种非均匀双折射结构。成本低、系统复杂度较低、转换速度一般;但是仅能在单点频率处生成单模态,实现过程也较复杂。可用于100 GHz毫米波OAM波束的产生和检测[30]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  基于超表面的电磁涡旋产生方法比较

    研究团队单元结构产生方法/原理实验频率模态l存在问题
    香港大学和浙江研究团队3维光子晶体点缺陷[37]8.8 GHz±2
    9.7 GHz±1
    偶极子通过调整散射体的几何形状改变其谐振频率,使得相移在设计频率处发生变化[32]6.2 GHz±2超表面散射体之间通常存在不可避免相互耦合现象
    上海同济大学金属贴片
    层金属接地层
    介电间隔层
    梯度相位反射超表面[38]10 GHz1不连续相位剖面会引入相位噪声
    西安交通大学金属片和衬底由变容二极管加载可调谐散射体超表面[39]5.35 GHz±1, ±2元件数量受限,难以生成高模态
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  典型的OAM检测方法

    检测方法结构基本原理优缺点结果
    单点法利用OAM远场近似,对检测点上电场和磁场的
    所有3个分量进行模式分析,计算得出
    在空间特定点上的拓扑电荷值。
    成本低、系统复杂度较低;需对整个波前进行采样;适用于单模态和较低模态的检测。
    相位梯度法检测两点间相位梯度,通过螺旋相位结构判定OAM模态。成本低、系统复杂度较低;仅需分析波前上的两个采样点,适用于单模态检测。
    多环谐振器OAM
    天线
    经验模式分解电磁波的基础可以由经验模式分解中的固有模式函数构成,由此定义每个局部拓扑电荷。能够检测叠加态。检测了-2和3的叠加态
    数字虚拟旋转
    天线
    接收天线高速采样示波器频谱分析仪根据旋转多普勒频移和OAM模态之间的关系确定OAM模态。系统较复杂;适用于检测单个模态。检测了1, 2, 4共3个单模态
    衍射模式转换器OAM模式转换器,接收天线SPP板产生不同模态涡旋波束;模式转换器将涡旋波束映射为平面波,通过透镜聚焦产生横向光斑,最后接收。成本较低;需检测整个波前,但是适用于单模态和叠加态的检测。检测了–3到3共7个单模态和两个叠加态
    全息超表面全息超表面超表面将OAM波束转换为高斯波束,通过定位高斯波束在设定位置处的场强确定入射OAM模态。系统复杂度较低;成本高、器件实现较复杂;适用于多个单模态的检测。检测了–2到2共5个单模态
    部分孔径取样接收法将光学中用于OAM解复用的偏角接收孔径法和采样接收法结合。仅需对部分波前进行采样,以检测多个模态;成本高;
    均匀圆形天线
    阵列
    对接收到的电磁涡旋进行频谱分析。可检测相反模态和但,模态;成本高,需对整个波前采样,系统复杂度高。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  OAM与LTE传输速率和频谱利用率比较

    通信类型频谱利用率(bps/Hz)传输速率(Mbps)调制方式
    OAM95.5256016-QAM[16]
    LTE16.32326.464-QAM
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同传输实验比较

    文献方法模态l传输距离传输速率频率频谱效率误码率
    文献[17]螺旋抛物面天线0, –1442 m2.4 GHz
    文献[64]贴片阵列天线±1, ±32.5 m32 Gbps毫米波16 Gbps/Hz3.8×10–3
    文献[65]部分波阵面接收27.5 km10 GHz
    下载: 导出CSV
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    • 收稿日期:  2019-05-20
    • 修回日期:  2019-09-18
    • 网络出版日期:  2020-03-02
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