Data compression is an effective measure to save the costs of data transmission and storage. A new and effective bit-recombination mark coding method that can be used to lossless data compression is proposed for the integer data sequence which has a small mean squared value. In the new method, the bit-recombination process is firstly applied to the integer data sequence to increase the occurrence probabilities of some data; then, the correct coding format is adaptively selected to encode the data stream according to the occurrence probability distribution characteristics of local data. Integer data sequences that have small mean squared values are applied to test the proposed method with several other lossless compression methods, and the compression effects are compared and analyzed. Test results show that, the integer data sequences can be compressed and decompressed losslessly by the proposed method. Moreover, the compression effect of the proposed method is superior to that of the classical arithmetic coding method, the LZW method, the universal WinRAR software, and the professional audio data compression software FLAC. The experimental results demonstrate the proposed method has a good application prospect.